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寫好Assignment的前提是寫好Paragraph!

寫好Assignment的前提是寫好Paragraph!

Paragraph,段落,可以說是整篇Assignment的縮影。一些字母組成一個單詞,一些單詞有組成一個句子,一些句子組成一個段落,最終再由許多段落組成一篇Assignment,想要寫好Assignment,這些環節每一個都要深思熟慮幾經斟酌再下筆。本文中HotEssay小編就告訴大家如何去寫好Assignment的重要組成部分——段落!
      段落(paragraph)是由表達單一中心思想(controlling idea or central idea)一組句子(包括主題句topic sentence,推展句supporting sentences及結論句concluding sentence)構成,是一篇Assignment的基本獨立單位。下文中HotEssay將就主題句和中心思想這兩個方面用例子跟大家討論下如何寫好Paragraph.

主題句與推展句

1、主題句
        第二單元 主題句簡介第三單元 如何寫好主題句主題句(topic sentence)是表達段落主題句子。它用以概括段落大意,要求全段其他文字都圍繞它展開。請看下例:
        My mother has passed along to me certain rules for getting along with others. Don’t argue with parents;they will think you don’t love them. Don’t argue with children;they will think themselves victimized. Don’t argue with spouses;they will think you are a tiresome mate. Don’t argue with strangers;they will think you are not friendly. My mother’s rules,in fact,can be summed up in two words:Don’t argue.
        主題句中提出“certain rules”是指什么?展開句中通過四個“Don’t argue ——”逐一加以交代。從結構來看,這是一個比較典型段落,它包括了主題句,推展句和結論句(即本段中末句)。
        1.1、主題句位置
        主題句通常放在段落開端,其特點是開門見山地擺出問題,然后加以詳細說明。其作用是使文章結構更清晰,更具說服力,便于讀者迅速地把握主題和想象全段內容。主題句可以放在段中起到承上啟下作用,或放在段尾起概括全段作用。但初學者比較難于掌握,因而在四級考試中,考生應盡量采用將主題句放在段落開頭寫作手法。
        例1:Our life today depends very much on energy. In towns and in villages,on farms and in factories,machines have made life easier than it used to be. The machines use energy,and energy is needed for heating,lighting,communications,carrying goods —— everything. Factories and industrial plants use a great deal of energy to make the things that we use and buy and sell.
        這段文字所講主要是能源問題。第一句就概括性地提出“我們目前生活很大程度上依賴于能源”。而隨后出現三句都是具體事例,對第一句進行說明和論述。我們可以斷定第一句為該段主題句。
加拿大代写,作业代写,exam代考,Report代写,代写文章-最靠谱最低价         例2:(主題句)No one can avoid being influenced by advertisements.(推展句1)Much as we may pride ourselves on our good taste,we are no longer free to choose the things we want,for advertising exerts a subtle influence on us.(推展句2)In their efforts to persuade us to buy this or that product,advertisers have made a close study of human nature and have classified all our little weakness.


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        以上這段由三句話組成。第一句是主題句,直截了當指出無人不受廣告影響這個主題,接著列舉兩個推展句對其補充和支持,指出我們已無法自由選擇所需商品,理由是廣告商已仔細研究了我們心理,并完全掌握了我們弱點。句子銜接自然,步步緊扣主題。
        1.2、如何寫好主題句中關鍵詞
        段落主題句對主題限定主要是通過句中關鍵詞來表現。關鍵詞要盡量寫得具體些。對“具體”要求包括兩個方面:一是要具體到能控制和限制段落發展;二是要具體到能說明段落發展方法。準確地把握關鍵詞是清楚地表達段落主題、寫好段落主題句重要前提之一。在上面例1,例2中,主題句關鍵詞分別為:depends very much on energy;no one can avoid being influenced. 我們再看下列例句:
        原句1:He can fix a bicycle himself. 斜體部分應為主題句中關鍵詞。但它只是限制了段落發展部分內容,并沒有告訴讀者該用哪種方法展開,是用因果關系法還是用分類法?
        修正:He can fix a bicycle himself in several simple steps.
        修正:There are several reasons why he can fix a bicycle himself.
        原句2:She tries to improve her looks. 斜體部分應為主題句中關鍵詞。她試著改變她面容理由是什么?或者她采取什么方法來改善呢?我們無法從關鍵詞中清楚得知。
        修正:She tries many ways to improve her looks.
        修正:There are some reasons why she tries to improve her looks.
        1.3 、如何寫好主題句中心思想
        主題句由兩部分組成,即主題(topic)和中心思想(controlling idea)。中心思想作用是導向(control)和制約(limit)。我們前面談到關鍵詞就反映了中心思想。所謂導向就是規定段落發展脈絡,所謂制約就是限制主題覆蓋范圍,兩者不可分割。沒有導向,內容就會離題或偏題;沒有制約,內容就可能超出一個段落所能容納范圍。對于初學寫作人來說,“導向”重要性容易理解,但如果由他們自己來構思一個主題句,就可能忽視“制約”這一面。例如:
        There are two ways in which one can own a book. The first is the property right you establish by paying for it,just as you have made it a part of yourself and the best way to make yourself a part of it is by writing in it.
        本段主題句如果沒有in which 引出定語從句,那么two ways 不僅不能起制約作用,而且也不能起導向作用,句子本身讀起來也就使人覺得欠缺點什么。優質assignment寫作盡在www.hotessay.cn
        Exercise is beneficial to your heart. A 22-year study was conducted by doctors in California. They found that people who work at physical jobs experience fewer heart attacks than other people. These active people work all the time at moderate speeds,their daily routine gives them an adequate amount of exercise and helps them stay in shape.
        “Exercise is beneficial”這是毫無疑義。但主題句中如不加上“to your heart”來加以control 和limit,那就流于空泛。因此,緊緊把握主題句中controlling idea導向和制約作用,是短文寫作成功關鍵之一。


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2、推展句

2.1、主要推展句
        主要推展句(major supporting statement)主要特點是:圍繞段落主題句展開每一個推展句本身都不要求作進一步說明或證明,句與句之間關系是相互獨立又是互相連接。
        例1:(主題句)There are several factors affecting climate.(推展句1)One factor is the mount of sunlight received.(推展句2)Altitude,or the height above sea level,also determines climate. (推展句3)The oceans have an effect on the climate of adjacent land.(推展句4)In addition,climate is influenced by the general circulation of the atmosphere.
        主題句指出影響氣候幾個因素。然后用四個擴展句說明四種因素。第一種是太陽光接收量,第二種是海拔高度,第三句和第四句分別是海洋和大氣環流因素。
        2.2、次要推展句
        次要推展句(minor supporting statement)是指對主要推展句作進一步事實分析和舉例說明。它從屬于某一個或某幾個推展句。
        例2:(主題句)I don’t teach because teaching is easy for me.(主要推展句1)Teaching is the most difficult of the various ways I have attempted to earn my living:mechanic,carpenter,writer.(主要推展句2)For me,teaching is a red-eye,sweaty-palm,sinking-stomach profession.(次要推展句1)Red-eye,because I never feel ready to teach no matter how late I stay up preparing.(次要推展句2)Sweaty-palm,because I’m always nervous before I enter the classroom,sure that I will be found out for the fool that I am.(次要推展句3)Sinking-stomach,because I leave the classroom an hour later convinced that I was even more boring than usual.
        從屬于主要推展句2三個次要推展句起著解釋說明作用,分別解釋red-eye,sweaty-palm,sinking-stomach含義,這就更加形象生動地證明了“teaching is not easy”這個主題。
        2.3、主要推展句與次要推展句關系
        主要推展句與次要推展句關系(relation)基本可以遵循下面“三部分”(three-part)規則。
        1)、每個主要推展句都應該是對主題句中表示主要思想關鍵詞直接、明確說明。
        2)、每個次要推展句都應該說明它主要推展句。
加拿大代写,作业代写,exam代考,Report代写,代写文章-最靠谱最低价         3)、含有討論說明或分析問題通常既要有主要推展素材,又要有次要推展素材。


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        2.4、寫好推展句方法
        主題句及關鍵詞確定后,開始選擇和主題有關信息和素材。實質上,針對關鍵詞測試每一個所選擇素材就是一個分類過程。有一種常用方法就是句子展開前加以設問,然后解答,即設問-解答(why-because)方法。下面我們通過舉例來看一看這種分類過程是如何完成。例3:假設(suppose)Topic sentence:English is an international language?設問(why)Why can we say English is an international language?
        解答(because)Because:English is spoken by pilots and airport control operators on all the airways of the world.
        Because:Over 70 percent of the world’s mail is written in English.
        Because:More than 60 percent of the world’s radio programs are in English.
        Because:Pakistanwas once one of the British colonies.
        Because:Many members of the International Language Society are selected from English-spoken countries.
        從上面可以看出,最初三個推展句是和關鍵詞an international language一致。第四句和主題句不統一,盡管第四句會成為另一主題句(Many Pakistanis speak English)很好推展句。第五句說服力不強。


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